[130], The Left Hegelians also influenced Marxism, which has in turn inspired global movements, from the Russian Revolution, the Chinese Revolution and myriad of practices up until the present moment.[130]. Hegel's own career suffered from the fame of his father. With his finances drying up quickly, Hegel was under great pressure to deliver his book, the long-promised introduction to his philosophical system. This contradiction leads to the dissolution of the thing or idea in the simple form in which it presented to a higher-level, more complex thing or idea that more adequately incorporates the contradiction. [59]:548 Early the following year, Hegel's sister Christiane committed suicide by drowning. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion [75]:207–208, In 1819–1827, he made two trips to Weimar, where he met Goethe, and to Brussels, the Northern Netherlands, Leipzig, Vienna, Prague, and Paris.[76]. Quand plus tard, ce dernier lui propose d’enseigner au lycée de Nuremberg, il accepte de suite. He lectured on "Logic and Metaphysics" and gave lectures with Schelling on an "Introduction to the Idea and Limits of True Philosophy" and facilitated a "philosophical disputorium". [149] This concept of Hegel as a hermetic thinker was elaborated by Glenn Alexander Magee,[150] who argued that interpreting Hegel's body of work as an expression of mysticism and hermetic ideas leads to a more accurate understanding of Hegel. For his god, Hegel does not take the logos of Heraclitus but refers to the nous of Anaxagoras, although he may well have regarded them the same as he continues to refer to god's plan, which is identical to God. Skupaj s Fichtejem in Schellingom je bil utemeljitelj nemškega objektivnega idealizma.Razvil je tehniko dialektičnega mišljenja, bistvo katerega je nadrobno prikazano v Fenomenologiji duha. For Hegel, the inner movement of reality is the process of God thinking as manifested in the evolution of the universe of nature and thought; Hegel argued that, when fully understood, reality is being thought by God as manifested in a person's comprehension of this process. ), a practice that goes back to Plato's Sophist and Aristotle's Categories. Hegel's thought is revolutionary in that it is a philosophy of absolute negation—as long as absolute negation is at the center, systematization remains open, making it possible for human beings to become subjects. Hegel cites a number of fragments of Heraclitus in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy. Noté /5: Achetez Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Werke: Vollstandige Ausgrabe Durch Einen Verein Von Freunden Des Vere Wigten: D. PH. Twentieth-century interpretations of Hegel were mostly shaped by British idealism, logical positivism, Marxism and Fascism. Au séminaire, il se lie d’amitié avec le philosophe Schelling et le poète Hölderlin. En 1816, il devient chaire de l’université de Heidelberg et publie, l’année suivante l’Encyclopédie des sciences philosophiques. [104] One to which he attributes great significance is the fragment he translates as "Being is not more than Non-being", which he interprets to mean the following: Sein und Nichts sei dasselbeBeing and non-being are the same. A partir de 1805, il a épuisé son héritage et connaît des difficultés financières. [63] They watched the unfolding of the French Revolution with shared enthusiasm. The triadic form that appears in many places in Hegel (e.g. (Hegel has been seen in the twentieth century as the originator of the thesis, antithesis, synthesis triad,[34] but as an explicit phrase it originated with Johann Gottlieb Fichte. His master–slave dialectic has been influential, especially in 20th-century France. Quand Napoléon arrive à Iéna, son poste à l’université s’interrompt et il prit alors la tête d’un journal sis à Bamberg suite à une offre émise par son ami, Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer. Soumettez aussi vos textes vos poèmes, aux lecteurs. The universe as becoming is a combination of being and non-being. On the day before the battle, Napoleon entered the city of Jena. Some historians have spoken of Hegel's influence as represented by two opposing camps. Recent studies have questioned this paradigm. A cette époque déjà, il a rédigé de nombreuses notes de lecture sur la littérature, la physique, l’esthétique, la théologie, la psychologie, la philosophie, les mathématiques, … Il a également écrit des notes, en français, sur Jean-Jacques Rousseau. All three together are called "ethical life" (Sittlichkeit). Hegel enseigne la philosophie sous la forme d'un système de tous les savoirs suivant une logique dialectique. There are views of Hegel's thought as the summit of early 19th-century German philosophical idealism. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel - Gymnasium rector: In spite of the Phänomenologie, however, Hegel’s fortunes were now at their lowest ebb. [144] Karl Popper quoted Schopenhauer as stating, "Should you ever intend to dull the wits of a young man and to incapacitate his brains for any kind of thought whatever, then you cannot do better than give Hegel to read...A guardian fearing that his ward might become too intelligent for his schemes might prevent this misfortune by innocently suggesting the reading of Hegel. p. 100, In the 1870s and 1880s, Rev. [129] No Hegelians of the period ever referred to themselves as "Right Hegelians", which was a term of insult originated by David Strauss, a self-styled Left Hegelian. [69][70] Later in the year, Hegel's first book The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy was completed. In Hegel's draft manuscripts written during his time at the University of Jena, his notion of "Geist" was tightly bound to the notion of "Aether", from which he also derived the concepts of space and time, but in his later works (after Jena) he did not explicitly use his old notion of "Aether". The precise nature of the procedural self-concretization that drives Hegel's Logic is still the subject of controversy. Retrouvez Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Werke: Vollst Ndige Ausgabe Durch Einen Verein Von Freunden Des Verewigten..... Wissenschaft Der Logik. Même s’il les maîtrisait bien, il se passionnait particulièrement pour les tragédies grecques, la botanique et la physique. Prix : 128 DM. (Unabridged) 2017 Einleitung in die Philosophie des Geistes. Since human thought is the image and fulfillment of God's thought, God can be understood by an analysis of thought and reality. And debates about the nature of logic were intertwined with competition to inherit the mantle of Kant and with it the future direction of German philosophy. [73] Although Napoleon chose not to close down Jena as he had other universities, the city was devastated and students deserted it in droves, making Hegel's financial prospects even worse. [147], Isaiah Berlin listed Hegel as one of the six architects of modern authoritarianism who undermined liberal democracy, along with Rousseau, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Fichte, Saint-Simon and Joseph de Maistre. All greatly admired Hellenic civilization and Hegel additionally steeped himself in Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Lessing during this time. [134] The Hegel renaissance also highlighted the significance of Hegel's early works (i.e. "[51] Martin Heidegger observed in his 1969 work Identity and Difference and in his personal Black Notebooks that Hegel's system in an important respect "consummates western philosophy"[52][53][54] by completing the idea of the logos, the self-grounding ground, in thinking through the identification of Being and beings, which is "the theme of logic", writing "[I]t is... incontestable that Hegel, faithful to tradition, sees the matter of thinking in beings as such and as a whole, in the movement of Being from its emptiness to its developed fullness. [100] Broadly speaking, the term was split, like Hegel's followers, to the political left and right. The following February marked the birth of Hegel's illegitimate son, Georg Ludwig Friedrich Fischer (1807–1831), as the result of an affair with Hegel's landlady Christiana Burkhardt née Fischer (who had been abandoned by her husband). This means that Jesus, as the Son of God, is posited by God over and against himself as other. He determined ontology as absolute logic; he assembled all the delimitations of philosophy as presence," later remarking that Hegel is thus "the last philosopher of the book and the first philosopher of writing," indicating the relation of Hegel to post-structural thought by stating "if there were a definition of Différance, it would be precisely the limit, the interruption, the destruction of the Hegelian dialectical synthesis wherever it operates. En 1790, il obtient sa maîtrise en philosophie. the subjective side of knowledge and will, with its life, movement, and activity" (thesis and antithesis), he did not use "synthesis", but instead spoke of the "Whole": "We then recognised the State as the moral Whole and the Reality of Freedom, and consequently as the objective unity of these two elements". Popper further proposed that Hegel's philosophy served not only as an inspiration for communist and fascist totalitarian governments of the 20th century, whose dialectics allow for any belief to be construed as rational simply if it could be said to exist. [122]:203 In his political philosophy, he criticized Karl Ludwig von Haller's reactionary work, which claimed that laws were not necessary. Hegel studerede teologi og filosofi i Tübingen mellem 1788 og 1793.Rygterne om den franske revolution nåede Tübingen i 1789. His philosophy of spirit conceptually integrates psychology, the state, history, art, religion and philosophy. ), The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism, The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy, Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bibliography, Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften, Vorlesungen über de Geschichte der Philosophie, "Adam Smith's Influence on Hegel's Philosophical Writings", Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Duden | He-gel | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition", "Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie", "MDZ-Reader – Band – Von den Beweisen für die Unsterblichkeit der menschlichen Seele im Lichte der spekulativen Philosophie / Göschel, Carl Friedrich", "Hegel and Clausewitz: Convergence on Method, Divergence on Ethics", On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, « Der Instinkt der Vernünftigkeit » and other texts, Hegel, as the National Philosopher of Germany (1874), "The Life of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel", Scans of all (original, German) books from Hegel (all editions) between 1807 and 1850 as PDFs at hegel.net, Works by or about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Relationship between religion and science, Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel&oldid=995579405, People educated at Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles needing additional references from August 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Francke, Kuno, Howard, William Guild, Schiller, Friedrich, 1913–1914, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 20:41. [101] In fact, Hegel's distinctions as to what he meant by civil society are often unclear. Like Plato, with his dualism of soul versus bodily appetites, Kant pursued the mind's ability to question its felt inclinations or appetites and to come up with a standard of "duty" (or, in Plato's case, "good") which transcends bodily restrictiveness. Here, Hegel published his Philosophy of Right (1821). "[145], Karl Popper wrote that "there is so much philosophical writing (especially in the Hegelian school) which may justly be criticised as meaningless verbiage". The limitations represent fetters, which it must constantly cast off as it becomes freer and more self-determining.[106]. [citation needed]. Il est décédé le 14 novembre 1831 à Berlin. [citation needed]. Indeed, "logic" in the field of nineteenth-century continental philosophy takes on a range of meanings from "metaphysics" to "theory of science," from "critical epistemology" to "first philosophy." The Right Hegelians, the allegedly direct disciples of Hegel at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, advocated a Protestant orthodoxy and the political conservatism of the post-Napoleon Restoration period. Delphi Collected Works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Illustrated) 2019 Hegel's Philosophy of Mind. In 1818, Hegel accepted the renewed offer of the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin, which had remained vacant since Johann Gottlieb Fichte's death in 1814. This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor W. Adorno, Ernst Bloch, Raya Dunayevskaya, Alexandre Kojève and Gotthard Günther among others. [59][77] His last words are said to have been, "There was only one man who ever understood me, and even he didn't understand me. Hegel was putting the finishing touches to it, The Phenomenology of Spirit, as Napoleon engaged Prussian troops on 14 October 1806 in the Battle of Jena on a plateau outside the city. The speculative identity of mind and nature suggests that reason and history progress in the direction of the Absolute by traversing various stages of relative immaturity, just like a sapling or a child, overcoming necessary setbacks and obstacles along the way (see Progress below). the constitutional state of free citizens). Né le 27 août 1770 à Stuttgart, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel est un philosophe allemand réputé. American philosophers associated with this movement include Lawrence Stepelevich, Rudolf Siebert, Richard Dien Winfield and Theodore Geraets. Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries. The "thesis–antithesis–synthesis" approach erroneously gives the sense that things or ideas are contradicted or opposed by things that come from outside them. [117], Spirit is immortal; it is eternal; and it is immortal and eternal in virtue of the fact that it is infinite, that it has no such spatial finitude as we associate with the body; when we speak of it being five feet in height, two feet in breadth and thickness, that it is not the Now of time, that the content of its knowledge does not consist of these countless midges, that its volition and freedom have not to do with the infinite mass of existing obstacles, nor of the aims and activities which such resisting obstacles and hindrances have to encounter. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (27. elokuuta 1770 Stuttgart – 14. marraskuuta 1831 Berliini) oli saksalainen filosofi, jonka vaikutus on luultavasti ollut vahvimmillaan metafysiikassa, historianfilosofiassa sekä poliittisessa filosofiassa.Häntä pidetään saksalaisen idealismin tärkeimpänä edustajana. Il était un élève modèle et intelligent. For these scholars, fairly well represented by the Hegel Society of America and in cooperation with German scholars such as Otto Pöggeler and Walter Jaeschke, Hegel's works should be read without preconceptions. [146] Popper also makes the claim in the second volume of The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945) that Hegel's system formed a thinly veiled justification for the absolute rule of Frederick William III and that Hegel's idea of the ultimate goal of history was to reach a state approximating that of 1830s Prussia. [98], Central to Hegel's conception of knowledge, mind, and reality was identity in difference; mind externalizes itself in various forms and objects and stands outside or opposed to them and, through recognizing itself in them, is "with itself" in these external manifestations so that they are at one and the same time mind and other-than-mind. This is because, as Hegel suggested by his introduction of the concept of "reality",[95]:111 what determines itself—rather than depending on its relations to other things for its essential character—is more fully "real" (following the Latin etymology of "real", more "thing-like") than what does not. According to Hegel, "Heraclitus is the one who first declared the nature of the infinite and first grasped nature as in itself infinite, that is, its essence as process. Regarded from the standpoint of division or disunion, its potential Being is for it an Other, and it itself is natural will; it is divided within itself, and this division is so far its feeling or consciousness of a contradiction, and there is thus given along with it the necessity for the abolition of the contradiction. Un vol. Soon after, his illegitimate son Ludwig Fischer (now ten years old) joined the Hegel household in April 1817, having spent time in an orphanage[59]:354–55 after the death of his mother Christiana Burkhardt.[59]:356. [74]:773, Having received offers of a post from the Universities of Erlangen, Berlin and Heidelberg, Hegel chose Heidelberg, where he moved in 1816. [120], Hegel continued to develop his thoughts on religion both in terms of how it was to be given a 'wissenschaftlich', or "theoretically rigorous," account in the context of his own "system," and how a fully modern religion could be understood.[121]. Also in 1797, the unpublished and unsigned manuscript of "The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism" was written. Rather than simply rejecting Kant's dualism of freedom versus nature, Hegel aims to subsume it within "true infinity", the "Concept" (or "Notion": Begriff), "Spirit" and "ethical life" in such a way that the Kantian duality is rendered intelligible, rather than remaining a brute "given". He was the son of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who died in 1831, when Karl Hegel was 18 years old. Hegel's system is often presented in the form of a Sierpiński triangle due to his tendency to group concepts by triads. T. R. Vickroy and Susan E. Blow—who were both minor associates of the St. Louis Hegelians—independently of each other translated various chapters from Göschel's book into English, and had their translations published in. By 14 November, Hegel was dead. (ed. Ensemble, ils fondent le Journal critique de philosophie qui n’est resté ouvert qu’entre 1802 et 1803. Marheineke, D. J. Schulze, u.v,m., 19 in 22 volumes. In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; "it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Gesammelte Werke. [33] Of special importance is his concept of spirit (Geist, sometimes also translated as "mind") as the historical manifestation of the logical concept – and the "sublation" (Aufhebung, integration without elimination or reduction) – of seemingly contradictory or opposing factors: examples include the apparent opposition between necessity and freedom and between immanence and transcendence. Gans U.A. The structure of Hegel's Logic appears to exhibit self-similarity, with sub-sections, in their treatment of more specific subject matter, resembling the treatment of the whole. As the new semester began in October, Hegel returned to Berlin in the mistaken belief that the epidemic had largely subsided. As a graduate of a Protestant seminary, Hegel's theological concerns were reflected in many of his writings and lectures. In other words, although the thing-in-itself is at any given moment thoroughly unknown, it nevertheless remains that part of the thing about which it is possible to learn more.[90]:101–102. [87] Hegel understood the history of philosophy to be a trans-historical socratic argument concerning the identity of the Absolute. Phänomenologie des Geistes, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Books On Demand. Kaufmann and Shlomo Avineri have criticized Popper's theories about Hegel. "[55][56] Heidegger in various places further stated Hegel's thinking to be "the most powerful thinking of modern times. Ein dynamisches Inhaltsverzeichnis ermöglicht den direkten Zugriff auf die verschiedenen Abschnitte. Vollständige Ausgabe durch einen Verein von Freunden des Verewigten: D. Ph. Vollständige Ausgabe durch einen Verein von Freunden des Verewigten: Werke. [136] The Swiss theologian Hans Küng has also advanced contemporary Hegelian scholarship. The physicians pronounced the cause of death as cholera, but it is likely he died from another gastrointestinal disease. ; 1984; 'The Significance of Hegel's separation of the state and civil society' pp1-13 in Pelczynski, A.Z. Whatever the nous thinks at any time is actual substance and is identical to limited being, but more remains in the substrate of non-being, which is identical to pure or unlimited thought. Because every concept is a composite of contraries (value is black and white, temperature is hot and cold, etc. Hegel's concept of Aufhebung, by which parts are preserved and repurposed within the whole, anticipates the concept of emergence in contemporary systems theory and evolutionary biology. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel est un philosophe allemand. [37] Paul Tillich wrote that the historical dialectical thought of Hegel "has influenced world history more profoundly than any other structural analysis. In Britain, the Hegelian British idealism school (members of which included Francis Herbert Bradley, Bernard Bosanquet and in the United States Josiah Royce) was challenged and rejected by analytic philosophers Moore and Russell. [59]:2–3, 745 Hegel's mother, Maria Magdalena Louisa (née Fromm), was the daughter of a lawyer at the High Court of Justice at the Württemberg court.